Acute lung injury (ALI) is one the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. In this study, we examined for first time the role of dapagliflozin (DPGZ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms by evaluating the effects of DPGZ on adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), nuclear transcription factor kappa B, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 inflammasome activation. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.
By T. Bhattacharya, G. A. Borges e Soares, H. Chopra, Md. M. Rahman, Z. Hasan, S. S. Swain and Simona Cavalu
The strategies involved in the development of therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders are very complex and challenging due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a closely spaced network of blood vessels and endothelial cells that functions to prevent the entry of unwanted substances in the brain. The emergence and advancement of nanotechnology shows favourable prospects to overcome this phenomenon. Engineered nanoparticles conjugated with drug moieties and imaging agents that have dimensions between 1 and 100 nm could potentially be used to ensure enhanced efficacy, cellular uptake, specific transport, and delivery of specific molecules to the brain, owing to their modified physico-chemical features. The conjugates of nanoparticles and medicinal plants, or their components known as nano phytomedicine, have been gaining significance lately in the development of novel neuro-therapeutics owing to their natural abundance, promising targeted delivery to the brain, and lesser potential to show adverse effects. In the present review, the promising application, and recent trends of combined nanotechnology and phytomedicine for the treatment of neurological disorders (ND) as compared to conventional therapies, have been addressed. Nanotechnology-based efforts performed in bioinformatics for early diagnosis as well as futuristic precision medicine in ND have also been discussed in the context of computational approach. schematic presentation of nano-informatic (nanotechnology and bioinformatics) in present dementia or neuro-disorder research.
Equal advancements in neurophysiology and neuropathology exploration would help in the advancement in nanotechnology, which can be used to provide CNS recovery and neuroprotection. Accordingly, for utilization of nanotechnology in neural system science and neurosurgery, key factors that require consideration include: (1) breakthrough discoveries and developments in drug science and material science, which can help in the manufacturing of the described methodologies; (2) development and advancement of sub-atomic science, sensory system-based neurophysiology, and neuropathology; and (3) planning and combination of explicit nano-empowered therapies to the CNS, which exploit the initial two factors. As a result, nanotechnology could provide the solution and can offer breakthrough therapies for the management and treatment of NDs and can also be used to bypass the current problem of available neurological therapies i.e., non-specific targeting and lower efficacy rates of drug therapies. Therefore, taken together, neurosurgeons, nervous system specialists, neuroscientists, and drug researchers and architects, should take part in utilizing the power of nanotechnology for drug delivery. Consistent with the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of this space of exploration, it is additionally significant to note that nano-informatics and nanotechnology can also provide innovative headways and progressions that are related to fundamental and clinical neuroscience. Copyright T. Bhattacharya, Simona Cavalu et al.
Due to the limitation of chitosan in drug delivery systems, because of its hydrophilicity and solubility, chemical modification was performed in our study by combining with a second natural polymer, Arabic gum, in order to improve the stability of nanoparticles. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Morphological and structural characterization, using AFM, operating in tapping mode, along with the surface profile. Although the lateral dimensions are influenced by the shape of the probe, the height measurements can provide the height of nanoparticles with a high degree of accuracy and precision. However, larger particles are formed due to the aggregation during storage time. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Structural characterization of polymeric powder nanoparticles entrapping propolis was performed by ATR FTIR spectroscopy, and compared with recorded spectrum of raw propolis, chitosan powder and Arabic gum as reference. In the same time, the marker bands of propolis are well preserved in the polymeric mixture, indicating that the bioactive compounds are stable upon the encapsulation procedure. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
In this study we succeeded to prepare and characterize natural polymeric nanoparticles based on chitosan/Arabic gum, entrapping propolis extract. The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles were assessed by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, along with Dynamic Light Scattering, revealing that particle size obtained from highly dispersed mixture was in the range of 50-400 nm, with large Gaussian distribution, the maximum percentage of size distribution being at around 120 nm. In the same time, an efficient encapsulation procedure was described using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. The morpholological features of nanoparticles were emphasized by AFM microscopy, demonstrating a good correlation between the results obtained by DLS technique. The FTIR analysis demonstrated that the marker bands of propolis are well preserved in the polymeric mixture, indicating that the bioactive compounds are stable upon the encapsulation procedure. In our formulation, we consider that a balanced crosslinking toward electrostatic interaction was established. Propolis release from polymeric matrix was monitored in both simulated gastric acid and simulated intestinal fluids, concluding that our proposed formulation is suitable for controlled release and pharmaceutical applications. Our results may provide a novel drug design, with improved bioavailability, stability and nutritional value of propolis bioactive compounds during processing and storage, with possible applications in food and nutraceutical industries. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
The glass ionomer cements present very good bio compatibility especially due to the presence of Fluor in their composition. The reactivity from the dental pulp to the ionomer cements is also favorable, even in the case of the profound cavities. The metallic ionomer cements are obturation materials that tend to replace the amalgams and were created by adding of metallic alloys to the glass powder for the purpose of improving the mechanic properties. The resistance to abrasion of the glass ionomer cements reinforced with Ag is increased compared to the ionomer cements, being close to that of the composite resins with micro filling, but inferior to the amalgams or composites for the posterior area. All these properties of the metallic glass ionomers recommend their utilization in accomplishing the definitive obturations of the permanent teeth from the lateral area, where the physiognomic aspect is not on the first place and where it is necessary a material with fast grip. The physical-chemical qualities and the bio compatibility of the glass ionomers reinforced with particles of silver was our premise in their utilization for the obturation of the molars of six years in children. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.
The glass ionomer cements present a very good biocompatibility due, especially, to the presence of fluoride in their composition. This inhibits the microbial infiltration, protecting the adjacent dental structures against the decay injury. Glass ionomer is a real tank of fluoride on the entire period of life of the restoration. The reactivity from the dental pulp to the ionomer cements is favorable, even in the case of the profound cavities. The fluoride release of conventional glass ionomer cements is estimated higher compared with light-curing glass ionomer cements and compomers. Especially in young children the fluoride release may not only help to prevent secondary caries around the filling but may also reduce the risk of caries at the surface of the adjacent tooth. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.
The properties of the glass ionomers recommend them to be used in the performance of definitive obturations in the young permanent teeth from the lateral area, where the physiognomic aspect is not prioritary and where it is necessary a material with fast grip. Still is recommended to be used with care in the areas of maximum occlusal stress. The physical-chemical qualities, the absence of the secondary decays and the bio compatibility of the glass ionomers reinforced with particles of silver was our premise in their utilization in the obturation of the molars of six years in children, as an alternative to the composite materials. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.
The aim of this work was to highlight the advantages of autogenous bone grafting combined with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in order to improve healing and reduce dehiscence risks. Two clinical cases were presented, both with important (horizontal and vertical) bone loss: in the first case, bone augmentation was performed at the same time as tooth extraction with no surgery needed for reconstruction of dental papillae, keratinized and attached mucosa; in the second case, vertical augmentation was performed by placing the bone graft in contact with an uninfected tooth. In both cases, aesthetic outcomes were as desired at the completion of treatment and also satisfactory at seven years follow-up. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
The bone collected from the chin is predominantly cortical, with a reduced spongy component, which affects the re-vascularization efficiency. Even though the mandibular bone has an increased density, which makes it optimal for implants’ osseointegration, its regenerative potential is reduced [1, 2]. Moreover, the reconstruction of the horizontal defect is more predictable than of the vertical ones, as there are more bone walls. Consequently, the source for the capillaries that will invade the graft is larger. A more modern and better approach uses longitudinal sectioning of the bone block, thinning of the bone with a bone scraper and filling the gap between the bone graft and the recipient site with small bone particles; the bone graft is acting as a bone barrier against soft tissue penetration into the graft. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
In the second case, however, the implant was placed six months after grafting and significant resorption was noticed. Even though the graft was integrated in the first case, the risk for dehiscence was very high; a deep incision was made for flap release that interested even the muscles fibers. A safer approach might be performing the bone graft procedure four weeks’ after tooth extraction healing, done along with PRGF placement into the alveolar socket. Deep sectioning of the muscles fibers most likely leads to soft tissue healing without surgery needed for keratinized and attached mucosa. In the second case, a safer approach might be the extraction of tooth 1.1. and bone grafting in the position of both central incisors; placing the grafted bone in contact with the root of a tooth is risky due to the possible contamination, which can lead to graft infection and loss . Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Autogenous bone blocks are valid for both horizontal and vertical augmentation but thin bone barrier and bone particles are nowadays the best choice for autograft bone augmentation. The success of vertical autogenous bone grafts in contact with teeth is always endangered by the possibility of graft contamination. PRGF is generally useful, but especially in vertical augmentation, considering the corresponding high risk of dehiscence. Tooth extraction with simultaneous bone grafting reduces treatment time but is complicated by high risk of dehiscence; thus, tooth extraction with PRGF, bone and soft tissue healing for four weeks prior to grafting may be a safer approach. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
The aim of our study was the biofortification of broccoli sprouts with selenium nanoparticles (NSePs) and evaluation of growth parameters, assimilator pigments content, total phenols, glucosinolates content along with antioxidant capacity, in order to boost value added output, such as improved nutrition and food functionality. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Growth parameters, assimilator pigments content, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts were evaluated. The growth of seedlings was depent on NSe concentration.The treatment with 10 and 50 ppm NSe caused a slight increase in total biomass, by contrast with 100 ppm treatment. A significantly increase in amount of chlorophyll a was recorded in the case of broccoli sprouts leaves treated with 100 ppm. The content in clorophyll band total carotene was not affected by the treatment with nanoSe particles. The concentration of 100 ppm NSe particles was reflected in the highest antioxidant capacity. Our results demonstrated that NSe particles in concentration of 10, 50 and 100 ppm didn’t induce any toxicity on broccoli sprouts. The effective uptake of NSe was further demonstrated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Enhanced Darkfield Hyperspectral Microscopy coupledwith CytoViva® unit. However, the complete understanding of NSe metabolism in vegetables sources requires more detailed biochemical studies and selenium uptake analysis to be conducted, especially from quantitative point of view. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
The aim of our study was to evaluate the properties of different commercially available resorbable collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration, upon addition of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). The structural and morphological details, mechanical properties, and enzymatic degradation were investigated in a new approach, providing clinicians with new data in order to help them in a successful comparison and better selection of membranes with respect to their placement and working condition. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Hematology parameters of whole blood and PRGF fraction:
Leukocytes (x 103/μL)
5.9 ± 1.2
0.3 ± 0.2
Erythrocytes (x 106/μL)
4.5 ± 0.4
0.01 ± 0.0
Platelets (x 103/μL)
210 ± 20
655 ± 85
Hematology parameters of whole blood and PRGF fraction. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Growth factor content
Transforming growth factor TGFβ1: enhances the proliferative activity of fibroblasts and stimulates the biosynthesis of collagen and fibronectin
Insulin –like growth factor IGF-1: is a primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone ; can also regulate cellular DNA synthesis
Platelet-derived growth factor PDGR: enhances collagen synthesis and bone cells proliferation
Quantitative assessment of the main growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines in PRGF fraction. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
PRGF-modified collagen membranes investigated in our study present new evidence of several advantages, with respect to a rapid and predictable soft tissue healing. The structural and morphological features of three different commercial collagen membranes for GBG/GTR were investigated upon PRGF treatment, revealing that particular characteristics such as porosity, fiber density, and surface topography may influence the mechanical behavior and performance of the membranes. By FTIR spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that the collagen matrix may act as a natural reservoir for growth factor delivery. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that, upon PRGF treatment, the changes of Young modulus values are correlated with the ultrastructural properties of each membrane type, especially the porosity. The mechanical properties of the membranes were analyzed in a comparative manner, before and after PRGF modification. The enzymatic (trypsin) degradation test also emphasized a different behavior—PRGF-modified membranes exhibited a slower degradation compared with the native ones. Within the limitations of the present study, the results are important with respect to the regulation and kinetic release of multiple growth factors that can be adapted to specific therapeutic conditions. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
The ability to promote wound healing by synergic effect of Trifolium Pratense and Ocimum basilicum mixt extract has not been studied yet, being the central point for future studies. So far, the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer properties have been demonstrated for each extract individually, obtaining promising results, and for these reasons, in the future, the mixture of both extracts are of great interest to be studied, expecting for a potential synergistic effect.
To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature dealing with any in vitro tests of the mixture Trifolium pretense and Ocimum basilicum extracts. Our research group performed a preliminary study using the “scratch test” assay on human fibroblasts, by applying the extract mixture in different concentrations on fibroblasts culture, in order to evaluate the optimum concentration to promote the stimulation and proliferation of the cells. Within this test, which is an in vitro model of wound healing, human fibroblasts were primarly grown to a confluent monolayer, and then was scraped in a straight line with a pipette tip, in order to simulate a wound. The fibroblasts migration into the wound area was monitored during 48 h incubation in the presence of different concentrations of mixed plant extracts along with the control (no treatment). Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.
The antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum and Trifolium species are summarized in this review in order to explore the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum and Trifolium pretense in relation with their phytochemical profile and to highlight the pharmacological activity of aqueous or ethanol extracts. Special attention was devoted to the dermal pathology and wound healing effects, in the context of multiple skin conditions such as acne, eczema boils, psoriasis and rashes. Both extracts (Trifolium sp. and Ocimum sp.) are characterized by high content of antioxidant compounds, which are also responsible for the radiance and resistance of the skin and the slowing down of the aging process by maintaining estrogen levels. Moreover, the potential combined effect of the mixed extract is pointed out in terms of future applications for wound healing, based on some preliminary results obtained from a “scratch tests” assay performed with respect to human dermal fibroblasts. Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.
The aim of our work was to develop and characterize a novel composition based on PVA reinforced with Se-doped TiO2 nanoparticles and natural hydroxyapatite (HA), for possible orthopedic applications. The PVA/Se-doped TiO2 composites with and without HA were structurally investigated by FTIR and XRD, in order to confirm the incorporation of the inorganic phase in the polymeric structure, and by SEM and XRF, to evidence the ultrastructural details and dispersion of nanoparticles in the PVA matrix. Both the mechanical and structural properties of the composites demonstrated a synergic reinforcing effect of HA and Se-doped TiO2 nanoparticles. Moreover, the tailorable properties of the composites were proved by the viability and differentiation potential of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSC) to osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic lineages. The novel hybrid PVA composites show suitable structural, mechanical and biological features to be considered as a promising biomaterial for articular cartilage and subchondral bone repair. (Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.)
In our paper, Se-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were used as nanofiller, with the main goal of possible multiple advantages, such as osteogenic, anticancer and antimicrobial properties.We succeeded in preparing Se-doped TiO2 nanoparticles via a hydrothermal reaction, characterized by XRD and SEM, emphasizing their morphology and crystallinity. Depending on the calcination temperature of the TiO2 precursor, the morphology of the nanoparticles turns from nanorods to nanowires, while Se nanoparticles preserve their spherical shape.The morphology of the composites evidenced a good dispersion of both Se-doped TiO2 and HA particles within the polymeric hydrogel, resulting in a reinforced fibrous structure. Se-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were deeply embedded in the polymeric network, while the larger HA particles filled the porous architecture. It is obvious that the presence of HA particles influences the porosity of the PVA matrix. As an overall behavior, it seems that all the composites show better performance for the osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation rather than for the adipogenic one. BMMSCs had fibroblast-like morphologies, maintaining their normal spindle shape in the early passages, while at later passages, exhibiting less concordant cell morphologies, with some cells characterized by an irregular flattened geometry and enlarged size. Particularly, the chondrogenic stimulation exhibited a distinct extracellular cartilage matrix stained with Alcian Blue (Sigma-Aldrich). At the same time, for osteogenic differentiation, Alizarin (Sigma-Aldrich) staining showed the formation of calcium oxalates on the differentiated BMMSCs, which was not observed in the undifferentiated cells. Intracellular lipid droplets staining using Oil Red-O (Sigma-Aldrich) proved the adipogenesis of BMSCs. Comparing the results obtained for different composites, it seems that PVA800 with or without HA shows the lowest differentiation potential in terms of adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic stimulation. (Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.).
The efficiency of both types of removable retainers was evaluated according to the following criteria:-Damage of the retainers (fractures—perforated and cracked, loss, unfitting and obvious discolorations) as a result of which the respective retainers could no longer be used, requiring restoration.-Loss of the retainer.-The rate of installation of mild or severe relapse of dento-maxillary anomalies, requiring the use of various therapeutic interventions. Copyright L. Vaida, Simona Cavalu et al.
The study we conducted shows that VFRs are less resistant than HRs, suffering much more fractures compared to HRs (p < 0.001). Mild relapses were reported in both groups without any statistical significance, being more frequently at T1 in both groups—due to inadequate wearing, damage, or loss of retainer. Mild relapses could be remediated by activating the HRs or by manufacturing the VFRs on the setup models. However, severe relapses were significantly more frequent in the HRs group (p < 0.05), especially due to improper wearing. These situations required the resumption of the active orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance or clear aligners.Most of the patients (8 patients) with severe relapse in our study, belonging to the HRs group, initially showed severe canine abnormalities (accentuated ectopia or impactions), that suggests that HR are associated with a higher risk of relapse in patients who have been orthodontically treated for severe canine malposition. Two of the patients in the VFRs group with severe relapse initially presented canine abnormalities associated with severe dental crowding, while three patients initially presented severe protrusions. However, the thermoplastic retainer has lower resistance in time compared to the Hawley retainer. No differences between groups were found in the rates of loss of the retainers. The risk of severe relapse during the first year of the retention phase is higher when using Hawley retainers. (Copyright L. Vaida, Simona Cavalu et al.).
The purpose of our study was to investigate the structural modifications of collagen extracellular matrix of amniotic membrane upon interaction with two different antibiotics, frequently used in surgical and post- surgical procedure, respectively ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. SEM micrographs evidenced the ultrastructure features of dried amniotic membrane, with laminar structure, flexible, transparent, with no blood vesels or nerves. FTIR spectroscopy combined with deconvolution techniques was applied with the aim to determine the extent of denaturation upon treatment with different antibiotics. By spectral analysis, we concluded that gentamicin treatment is more favorable compared to ciprofloxacin, as the denaturation process is reflected by the lower sheet/turns ratio of the secondary structure composition.
The present study was devoted to structural analyses of amniotic membrane as a potential natural biomaterial for biomedical applications, including tissue regeneration. The basement membrane closely resembles to that of the conjunctiva and cornea, especially with regards to its collagen composition (collagen type IV, V and VI) in addition to fibronectin and laminin. SEM micrographs evidenced the ultrastructure features of dried amniotic membrane, with laminar structure, flexible, transparent, with no blood vessels or nerves. FTIR spectroscopy combined with deconvolution techniques was applied in order to determine the extent of amniotic membrane denaturation upon treatment with different antibiotics. By spectral analysis, we can conclude that the gentamicin treatment is more favorable compared to ciprofloxacin, as the denaturation process is reflected by the lower sheet/turns ratio.(Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.)
The aim of this study is to obtain “giant” liposomes by lipid film hydration using a preparation formula with two different phospholipids, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylserine (PS).Firstly, the macro- and microscopic characterization, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity of the plant Stellaria media (L.) Vill. were assessed. Then, Stellaria media (L.) Vill. extract was encapsulated in both formulations (PCE and PSE) and the liposomes were characterized according to their morphology, size distribution and Zeta potential using optical microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The encapsulation efficiency (EE%) was determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and the values of both formulations were compared. PC and PCE liposomes with a diameter between 712 and 1000 nm and PS and PSE liposomes with a diameter between 58 and 1000 nm were obtained. The values EE% of Stellaria media (L.) Vill. extract for PCE and PSE were 92.09% and 84.25%, respectively.
Both PC and PS liposomes and their homologues with encapsulated plant extract were “giant” multilamellar liposomes. In the case of PC and PCE liposomes, around 50–80% presented dimensions between 712 and 1000 nm, while more than 90% of PS and PSE liposomes were in the range of 58–1000 nm. The larger diameter of the PC and PCE liposomes confirmed that the type of phospholipids used in the preparation significantly influenced the size and electrical charge of the formulation. The phosphatidylserine-based formulations showed smaller diameters and a negative Zeta potential, meaning they had better stability compared to phosphatidylcholine-based ones. We also demonstrated a high inclusion percentage of the Stellaria media (L.) Vill. extract in both formulations—more than 90% for PCE and more than 80% for PSE. (Copyright F. Miere (Groza), Simona Cavalu et al.
Knowing the biological and pharmacological properties of propolis, the first goal of our study was to prepare and characterize a propolis nano-formulation (NPs) in order to be used for wound healing applications. The ability of propolis NPs to stimulate the migration of dermal fibroblasts in vitro was assessed by scratch test assay. The concentration of 200 μg/mL propolis NPs was found to have similar effect as the positive control. The second goal was to prepare a propolis-collagen membrane and to investigate the morphological and nanoindentation properties by AFM. The ultrastructure network of collagen fibrils was not affected by incorporation of propolis NPs, showing a nano-porous structure, favorable for soft tissue regeneration applications. Enzymatic degradation assay indicated a reduced degradation rate upon incorporation of propolis NPs in collagen matrix.
Ionotropic gelation method was applied for the preparation of propolis NPS. The nanoparticles were formed spontaneously due to ionic interaction between the protonated amine groups in chitosan and the negatively charged counter-ion TPP, being stabilized by Tween 80.
The tridimensional network of collagen fibrils is visible in both specimens (with or without propolis NPs incorporated) emphasizing the details of repetitive structure of the D-bands pattern of a single collagen fibril, with periodic gaps and grooves, in concordance with some previous published work [32, 33]. The periodicity of D-bands is less visible after propolis NPs incorporation. Moreover, after propolis NPs incorporation and freeze drying procedure, an obvious porous ultrastructure formation was noticed, as a result of fibers self-assembly.
A collagen-based membrane was prepared and investigated by AFM in terms of morphological features and nanoindentation. The network of collagen fibrils was not affected by propolis NPs, showing a nano-porous structure, favorable for soft tissue regeneration applications. Enzymatic degradation assay indicated a reduced degradation rate upon incorporation of propolis NPs in collagen matrix. Corroborating the above mentioned results, we consider that modified-collagen membrane by adding propolis NPs in a controlled concentration, might represent a promising natural alternative to synthetic bandages for wound healing applications. Of course, further in vitro and in vivo tests are necessary to evaluate the biological performances of collagen-modified membranes, in terms of tissue adaptation and integration. (Simona Cavalu, PM Pasca, Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 929 – 938July-September 2021).
By Laslo, V., Pinzaru, S. C., Zaguła, G., Kluz, M., Vicas, S. I., & Simona Cavalu
Cadmium is a heavy metal, environmental pollutant and toxic for organisms. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and nanoparticles represent useful tools to remove heavy metals from different environments. The main goal of our study was to develop a novel experimental design for cadmium (Cd) disposal using L. casei or L. fermentum and exogenous selenium nanoparticles. The experimental design was developed in two steps. In the first step, bio-synthesis, morphological and chemical characterization of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) produced by L. casei was performed. In the next step, L. casei and L. fermentum were used to evidence their binding ability toward Cd, highlighting the role of SeNPs against Cd-induced toxicity. Homogenous, spherical shape SeNPs and sharp size distribution with maximum 200 nm were obtained via reduction route, using L. casei and Na 2 SeO 3 . Addition of Cd to LAB culture medium strongly inhibits both bacteria growth. SeNPs, in contrast to sodium selenite, clearly demonstrates the protective effect against Cd toxicity, as evidenced by dynamic growth curves of both bacteria. A better stimulation of endogenous SeNPs production was noticed for L. fermentum compared to L. casei . The efficiency of Cd bioabsorption by LAB was in the range 43.78% – 50.87%, the ratio of 1:2 LAB/SeNPs showing the best results for both bacteria. The synergic effect of biogenic SeNPs and LAB against Cd toxicity was demonstrated. The combination of FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), FT Raman (Fourier Transformed Raman) and ICPOES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy) techniques provides specific qualitative and quantitative information on the behavior of probiotic species with respect to SeNPs synthesis and Cd disposal. (Simona Cavalu et al. JOMS 1247, 2022, 131325).
Liquid crystals (LCs) are also known as mesophase, which means an intermediate state between conventional solids and isotropic liquid, being mostly classified into two types: thermo tropic LCs (phase transition as a function of temperature) and lyotropic LCs (phase transition as a function of concentration of amphiphiles). Important features like thermodynamic stability, improved solubility of hydrophobic drugs, improved bioavailability and controlled release pattern made them effective carriers for a variety of drugs and bioactive compounds. Due to these unique features, LCs possess wide applications in the field of pharmaceuticals and become an attractive choice of vehicle for in vivo drug delivery. This review paper aims on highlighting the concept of LCs, classification, preparation methods and characterization techniques, in the context of pharmaceutical applications along with its perspectives in drug delivery systems. (Rajni Bala, Rakesh K. Sindhu, Bharti Kaundle, Reecha Madaan, Simona Cavalu, JOMS 1245, 2021, 131117)