Bioactive Based Nanocarriers for the Treatment of Viral Infections and SARS-CoV-2

By Ravi Goyal, Abhijit Dey, Md. Habibur Rahman, Simona Cavalu et al.

The spread and pandemic of viral diseases are becoming a major threat to public health and a burden on the financial prosperity of communities worldwide. In recent years, SARS-CoV-2 has made a dramatic lifestyle change. This has promoted scientists not to use synthetic anti-virals, such as protease inhibitors, nucleic acid analogs, and other anti-virals, but to
study less toxic anti-viral phytomolecules. An emerging approach includes searching for eco-friendly therapeutic molecules to develop phytopharmaceuticals. This article briefly discusses numerous bioactive molecules that possess anti-viral properties, their mode of action, and possible applications in treating viral diseases, with a special focus on coronavirus and various nano-formulations used as a carrier for the delivery of phytoconstituents for improved bioavailability. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Structure of Coronavirus. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
The activity of anti-viral phytomolecules with their mechanisms of action. Copyright
Simona Cavalu et al.
Proposed mechanism of action of various essential oils for anti-viral activity. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Role of enzyme and protein inhibitors in SARS-CoV. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Herbs are effective in preventing COVID-19 infection. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Various delivery systems, such as self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS), hydrogels, phytosomes, microspheres, transferases, etc., have been used for the delivery of phytoconstituents with anti-viral potential. These nanoformulations displayed numerous effects, such as improved oral solubility, systemic bioavailability, delayed metabolism, and enhanced therapeutic activity. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Different nano-formulations for the delivery of phytoconstituents with anti-viral potential. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Numerous natural products, along with essential oils and herbal constituents isolated from them, are observed to possess the strong potential to fight against viral infections and their discoveries can provide further help in synthesizing derivatives and therapeutic leads. As large research studies in this area are only preliminary, further details of experimentation in characterizing the bioactive constituent, defining the principal mechanisms, as well as evaluating the efficacy and in vivo studies, are encouraged to develop more therapeutically sound anti-viral therapies through natural products. Furthermore, additional studies need to be performed to explore the possibility of developing combination therapies with other natural agents, such as polyherbal nanoformulations with site-specificity, which may help in reducing the risk of developing drug-resistant viruses. Phytopharmaceuticals will continue to play an important role and contribute to novel nanoformulations as a carrier for safe and cost-effective
delivery systems. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text available at : https://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/12/9/1530/htm

Natural Small Molecules in Breast Cancer Treatment: Understandings from a Therapeutic Viewpoint

By Md. R. Islam, F. Islam, MH. Nafady, T B. Emran, Simona Cavalu &al

Breast cancer (BrCa) is considered a global public health concern ; it is the second most widely diagnosed cancer and a prominent cause of mortality in women. As a result, to reduce the number of BrCa-related mortality, effective BrCa therapies are necessary. Furthermore, people of certain races or ethnicities are more likely to develop BrCa. African American women under the age of 40 are twice as likely to develop BrCA as white women of the same age. Females of American, African, and Hispanic heritage can be identified with aggressive and severe types of BrCa. Copyright Md.R. Islam, F. Islam, MH Nafady, Simona Cavalu & al.

Molecular subtypes of breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer types are depicted.
Overall survival (for breast cancer subtypes) and relapse-free survival (for TNBC subtypes) are used to distinguish the subtypes. Copyright Md.R. Islam, F. Islam, MH Nafady,
Simona Cavalu & al.

Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Despite the urgent need for effective and novel therapies, there is considerable concern in identifying BrCa risk factors and improving chemo-preventive and lifestyle adjustment actions that can help decrease the impact of the disease. Although BRCA1 and BRCA2, as tumor-suppressor proteins, signify less than 10% of cases; their
discovery has overwhelmingly influenced patient treatment. Other risk factors linked with ER-positive BrCa progress, for example early menarche, early thelarche, and first pregnancy at a later age, are less well characterized and may also be linked to increased estrogen exposure. Obesity and metabolic syndrome, additionally, have been recently established as significant BrCa risk factors, a link that is particularly noteworthy considering the present obesity epidemic. Increased influence of adipokines and inflammatory cytokines, as well as increases in circulating insulin and insulin-like growth factors, local estrogen synthesis in adipose tissue, and the impact of circulating insulin and insulin-like growth factors, are all thought to play a role in disease development. Copyright Md.R. Islam, F. Islam, MH Nafady, Simona Cavalu & al.

Natural Compounds against Breast Cancer: Quercetin, Tetrandrine, Thymoquinone, Resveratrol, Honokiol, Garcinol, Biochanin A, Lycopene, Shikonin, Sulforaphane, Echinacea, Garlic, Turmeric, Burdock, Carotenoids, Green Tea.

Multifunctional effects of natural compounds on breast cancer. Some of these compounds may have synergistic impacts or aid in the fight against multidrug resistance. Natural compounds may play an important role in treating and preventing BrCa in the not-too-distant future, given all of these factors.Copyright Md.R. Islam, F. Islam, MH Nafady, Simona Cavalu & al.

Natural substances have been shown through multiple investigations
to decrease carcinogenesis and reverse cancer growth by triggering apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. They impact tumor cells by interfering with cell death pathways such as extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis and autophagy. These compounds inhibit cancer cell proliferation through these processes while causing minimal harm to normal cells. Natural compounds are currently being explored in clinical practice because of their anticancer
and apoptotic effects and low toxicity. Many of these substances will likely be used to treat BrCa as they have previously been found to have significant effects against various illnesses]. Finally, the natural compounds mentioned are just a fraction of the many chemicals that have been revealed to have anti-BrCa properties. Through the potential of these compounds, researchers are getting closer to finding a cure for BrCa. These compounds
have the potential to lower BrCa-related mortality and help people live longer across the world. Therefore, natural substances should continue to be investigated as an option for BrCa therapy. Copyright Md.R. Islam, F. Islam, MH Nafady, Simona Cavalu & al.

Full text available at https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/27/7/2165

Green Metallic Nanoparticles: Biosynthesis to Applications

By H. Chopra, T. Bin Emran, Simona Cavalu & al

Algae, plants, bacteria, and fungus have been employed to make energy-efficient, low-cost, and nontoxic metallic nanoparticles in the last few decades. Despite the environmental advantages of using green chemistry-based biological synthesis over traditional methods as discussed in this article, there are some unresolved issues such as particle size and shape consistency, reproducibility of the synthesis process, and understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing metallic nanoparticles via biological entities. Consequently, there is a need for further research to analyze and comprehend the real biological synthesis-dependent processes. Copyright: H. Chopra, Simona Cavalu & al

Schematic representation of biosynthesis of nanoparticles from plants. Copyright H. Chopra, Simona Cavalu & al.

FACTORS AFFECTING BIOSYNTHESIS OF NANOPARTICLES: Nanoparticles creation from biological extracts may also be affected by reaction conditions. Studies have shown that a reaction solution’s pH has a significant impact on the production of the nanoparticles that result. The form and size of the generated nanoparticles may be affected by changes in the reaction pH. When comparing lower acidic pH values to higher acidic pH values, bigger particles are produced. The bigger particles (25–85 nm) were generated at pH two whereas the smaller particles (5–20 nm) were created at pH three and four in a research using Avena sativa biomass (Armendariz et al., 2004). Particle aggregation may have been caused by the lack of functional groups at pH 2, according to the researchers. The bacteria Rhodopseudomonas capsulate was shown to produce gold nanoparticles in a similar manner. It was discovered that, with a pH rise of 7, spherical particles measuring 10–20 nm were present. Nanoplates were formed when the reaction pH was lowered to 4 (He et al., 2007). Copyright: H. Chopra, Simona Cavalu &al.

Antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles via ROS pathway. In comparison to Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria have a stronger cell wall due to a lower concentration of lipopolysaccharides, making them a more formidable barrier to the entry of AgNPs. Gram-negative bacteria’s cell walls and membranes are thinner due to more lipopolysaccharides a and less peptidoglycan. They adhere to AgNPs due to their composition, stability, and negative charge. Because AgNPs have an electrical affinity to bacteria, they may be used to kill them, as was previously stated (Abbaszadegan et al., 2015).Copyright: H. Chopra,
Simona Cavalu & al.
Anticancer effect of zinc nanoparticles. Targeted medication delivery
using ZnO nanoparticles provides new options for cancer
therapy that are both safer and more effective. Zinc oxide
nanoparticles (ZnO) may be used as nanocarriers for various
chemotherapeutic drugs that synergistically impact cancer cells. Copyright: H. Chopra, Simona Cavalu & al.

RECYCLABILITY AND REUSABILITY OF
GREEN-SYNTHESIZED NANOPARTICLES: The areas of materials engineering and nanotechnology are increasingly concerned with sustainability techniques, frameworks, and metrics in an attempt to mitigate
environmental and health concerns connected with the manufacturing, use, and disposal of innovative nanomaterials (Dhingra et al., 2010). Veisi et al., synthesized Ag nanoparticles based on Thymbra spicata, the plant being rich source of thymol, carvacrol and myrcene (Veisi et al., 2018). In spite of the significant catalytic activity of Ag Nanoparticles/Thymbra. When Ag NPs/Thymbra were separated and reapplied in RhB and MB colour degradation, their recycling efficiency was determined correspondingly. Similarly, researchers developed copper nanoparticles using Commersonia bartramia extract and immobilized using Al2O3 surface (Nasrollahzadeh et al., 2019). The catalyst was able to show significant changes upto 7th cycle, for reduction of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Copyright: H. Chopra, Simona Cavalu & al.

Despite the environmental advantages of using green chemistry based biological synthesis over traditional methods as discussed in this article there are some unresolved issues such as particle size and shape consistency, reproducibility of the synthesis process, and understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing metallic nanoparticles via biological entities. Therefore, there is a need for further research to analyze and
comprehend the real biological synthesis dependent processes. This is a vastly untapped subject that needs much more research investment to properly leverage the green manufacturing of metallic nanoparticles through living entities. Copyright: H. Chopra, Simona Cavalu &al.

Full text at https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbioe.2022.874742/full

Septic cardiomyopathy: The Value of Immuno-histochemical Diagnostics and Role of Lipopolysaccharide Receptor (CD14)

By P. M. Reil, T. T. Maghiar, N. Vîlceanu, A. Pascalau, Claudia Teodora Judea Pusta, F. Marcu , Simona Cavalu and Ovidiu Pop

The aim of this our study was to determine any significance of the mCD14 and sCD14 levels in the septic cardiomyopathy, and to evaluate the correlation with lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) by means of immuno-histological examinations.

(A,B) H&E normal aspects of the control group, showing cardiac muscle fibers with interstitial edema and inflammatory infiltrate. (A) Cardiac muscle fibers with small nuclei located centrally—white arrows (magnification 100×). (B) The nuclei of the fibers are enlarged in volume, revealing cellular suffering—white arrows (magnification 200×). (C) The negative expression of CD14 in a specimen belonging to the control group. The causes of death in the control group were not related to heart disease (magnification 100×). (D) Immunohistochemical image of numerous myocardial fibers with inflammatory cells intercalated, with the membrane marked in brown, showing low CD14 expression (<10%)—white arrows (magnification 40×). (E) Immunohistochemical image of the myocardial cells, with numerous inflammatory cells intercalated and membranous immune expression of CD14 marked in brown and white arrows. Its expression is revealed mainly on the macrophage membrane surface, but also minimally distributed on the neutrophil surface of mCD14. No expression is seen in the blood vessels—yellow arrows (magnification 40×). (F) Immunohistochemical image of a blood vessel located intramuscularly—yellow arrows. In the vessel’s lumen there can be noticed granular areas of extracellular, soluble CD14 (brown color) along with monocytes and neutrophils (mCD14)—white arrows (magnifications 40×). Copyright P. M. Reil, T. T. Maghiar, N. Vîlceanu, A. Pascalau, Claudia Teodora Judea Pusta, F. Marcu , Simona Cavalu and Ovidiu Pop

The study showed: 1) a positive association between markedly increased values of CD14 and an adverse patient evolution; 2) significant increase in the level of membranous and soluble CD14 surface protein in the study group; 3) tendency for higher values in relation to older patients, but without statistical significance; 4) no statistically relevant difference regarding the patient’s gender, provenance, or infection site; 5) a positive association between cellular expression (membranous, mCD14) and intravascular (soluble, sCD14) levels; 6) CD14 plays a double role: (a) as a component of the innate immune system, a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) proposed to bind conserved molecular structures on microbes (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs, e.g., LPS); (b) as an active agent involved in the apoptotic cell cleaning process. Apoptotic cell-associated molecular patterns (ACAMPs) interfere with PRR and LPS-like
structures, as revealed on apoptotic cells. (Copyright P. M. Reil, T. T. Maghiar, N. Vîlceanu, A. Pascalau, Claudia Teodora Judea Pusta, F. Marcu , Ovidiu Pop and Simona Cavalu)

We suggest that a large amount of sCD14 detected in the myocardial tissue will activate the mCD14–TRL4–LBP–LPS complex and further induce an inadequate immune response, resulting in severe heart damage. A higher amount of LPS will induce more significant heart damage. Identification of the presence of mCD14 and sCD14 in the myocardium tissue can allow the indubitable diagnosis of septic cardiomyopathy. (Copyright P. M. Reil, T. T. Maghiar, N. Vîlceanu, A. Pascalau, Claudia Teodora Judea Pusta, F. Marcu , Simona Cavalu and Ovidiu Pop)

Full text available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4418/12/4/781/htm

Nifuroxazide-loaded cubosomes for pulmonary delivery attenuates bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis

By Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al

This study highlights the importance of cubosomes as a drug delivery
system in enhancing the bioavailability of nifuroxazide (NXZD), a poorly soluble STAT3 inhibitor. NXZD loaded cubosomes (NXZD-LC) were in vitro and in vivo evaluated. In vitro, cubosomes presented a poly-angular
nanosized particles with a mean size and zeta potential of 223.73 ± 4.73 nm and 20.93 ± 2.38 mV, respectively. The entrapment efficiency of nifuroxazide was 90.56 ± 4.25%. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study and the
lung tissue accumulation of NXZD were performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration to rats. The nanoparticles exhibited a two-fold increase and 1.33 times of bioavailability and lung tissue concentration of NXZD compared to NXZD dispersion, respectively. In view of this, NXZD-LC effectively
attenuated PF by targeting STAT3 and NF-κB signals. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al.

NXZD-loaded cubosomes; Mean plasma concentration-time profile (mean ± SD) after intra-gastric administration of NXZD suspension and
NXZD-loaded cubosomes. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZD-loaded cubosomes on lung tissue histological features in intratracheal bleomycin-exposed rats. BLMC group exhibited a massive
inflammatory-cell infiltration (arrows), alveolar wall thickening (arrowhead), and the highest inflammation score. BLMC + NXZD showed moderate
inflammatory-cell infiltration (arrow) and alveolar wall thickening (arrowhead) and a non-significant difference in the inflammatory score compared with that of
BLMC group.Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZD-loaded cubosomes on lung tissue fibrotic changes in intratracheal bleomycin-exposed rats: significant decrease in the A% of
fibrosis compared with that of BLMC group.Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr,
Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZDloaded
cubosomes on the levels of LDH (a)
and BALF total protein (b) in intratracheal
bleomycin-exposed rats. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZDloaded
cubosomes on MDA (a), NOx (b), GSH
(c) and SOD (d) in intratracheal bleomycinexposed
rats. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZD-loaded cubosomes on COL1A1 mRNA expression (a), hydroxyproline (b) and ICAM-1 (c) in lung tissue in intratracheal
bleomycin-exposed rats. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZD-loaded
cubosomes on TLR4 mRNA expression (a), TLR4 (b),
IL-6 (c), TNF-α (d) and MCP-1 (e) in lung tissue in
intratracheal bleomycin-exposed rats. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr,
Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZDloaded
cubosomes on TGF-β1 mRNA expression
(a), TGF-β1 (b), PDGF-BB (c) and TIMP-1
(d) in intratracheal bleomycin-exposed rats. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr,
Simona Cavalu & al.
Effect of NXZD suspension and NXZD-loaded cubosomes on NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity (a), STAT3 mRNA expression (b) and p-STAT3 (Tyr 705) (c) in
intratracheal bleomycin-exposed rats. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr,
Simona Cavalu & al.

Nifuroxazide showed a potential anti-inflammatory effect, improved antioxidant defense, and suppressed fibrogenic mediators in the lung tissue. To conclude, cubosomes represent an advantageous pharmaceutical delivery system for enhancing pulmonary delivery of poorly soluble drugs. Additionally, since NXZD does induce cross-resistance to other antibacterial agents and does not adversely affect the physiological intestinal bacterial flora, repurposing NXZD as an antifibrotic agent is a promising challenge and new therapeutic approach for unmet therapeutic needs. Copyright Sameh Saber, Mohamed Nasr, Simona Cavalu & al.

Full text at

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332222001196

Therapeutic efficacy of Clompanus pubescens leaves fractions via downregulation of neuronal cholinesterases/Na+-K+ATPase/IL-1 β, and improving the neurocognitive and antioxidants status of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

By A. S. Onikanni, Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.

Clompanus pubescens leaf fractions displayed
hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocininduced
diabetic rats (A) Fasting blood
glucose level (FBGL) and (B) body weight of
streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Copyright A. S. Onikanni, Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.
Clompanus pubescens leaf fractions improved the neuronal antioxidant status of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Effect of C. pubescens leaf fractions on the
level of (A) GSH and activities of (B) SOD (C) CAT, (D) GST, and (E) GPx in the brain of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Copyright A. S. Onikanni, Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.
The level of Interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic
rats after administration of Clompanus pubescens leaf fractions.Copyright A. S. Onikanni, Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.
Clompanus pubescens leaf fractions ameliorates
cognitive deficits in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Effect of C. pubescens leaf fractions on (A) Y-Maze test, and
(B) novel object recognition (NOR) test.Copyright A. S. Onikanni, Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.
3D and 2D views of the receptor-ligand interactions between butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and the identified
compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of Clompanus pubescens. Copyright A. S. Onikanni, Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.
3D and 2D views of the receptor-ligand interactions between acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the identified compounds
from ethyl acetate fraction of Clompanus pubescens. Copyright A. S. Onikanni,
Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.
2D view of the receptor-ligand interactions between sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+-ATPase) and the identified
compounds from ethyl acetate fraction of Clompanus pubescens. Copyright A. S. Onikanni,
Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.
In silico gastrointestinal absorption and Blood Brain Barrier Penetration
modelling of the identified compounds from the ethyl acetate fraction of
Clompanus pubescens. Copyright A. S. Onikanni,
Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.

Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective and antioxidant properties of different fractions (ethyl acetate, N-butanol and residual aqueous) of Clompanus pubescens leaves in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Our results revealed a significant elevation in the levels of blood glucose, pro-inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation, neuronal activities of acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, nitric oxide, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and Na+/K+-ATPase in diabetic non treated rats. In addition, decreased levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were observed. Treatment with different fractions of C. pubescens leaves resulted in significant reversal of the biochemical alteration
and improved the neurocognitive deficit in STZ induced diabetic rats. Copyright A. S. Onikanni, Simona Cavalu, G. El-Saber Batiha et al.

Full text at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332222001184?via%3Dihub

Evolution of diagnostic methods for Helicobacter pylori infections: from traditional tests to high technology, advanced sensitivity and discrimination tools

By A. I. Cardos, Simona Cavalu et al.

Invasive and noninvasive diagnostic tools for H. pylori. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Invasive and noninvasive diagnostic tools for H. pylori. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

This paper aims to expose the diagnosis methods for H. pylori that are currently available, high-lighting their assets and limitations. The perspectives and the advantages of nanotechnology along with the concept of nano(bio)sensors and development of lab-on-chip devices as advanced tools for H. pylori detection, differentiation and discrimination is also presented, by emphasizing multiple advantages: simple, fast, cost effective, portable, and miniaturized, small volume of sam-ples required, highly sensitive and selective. It is generally accepted that intelligent sensors devel-opment will completely revolutionize the acquisition procedure and medical decision in the framework of smart healthcare monitoring system. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Histological imaging for H. pylori
Gastric mucosa showing reduced cytoplasmic mucin (blue arrow), reactive epithelial changes (red arrow) and a mix between acute inflammatory cells and chronic inflammatory cells (H&E, ob100x); b) Gastric mucosa showing reduced cytoplasmic mucin (blue arrow), lymphocytes and plasma cells (red arrow). Histological imaging for H. pylori (yellow arrow). H&E, 200x ob; c) Clusters of cells with intracellular H. pylori were widely distributed within the lamina propria (blue arrow) and were especially abundant just below the superficial epithelial cell layer of the gastric mucosa (red ar-row). IHC 100x ob. Images from private collection, Prof. dr. Ovidiu Pop, unpublished. Copyright Simona Cavalu, Ovidiu Pop et al.

The limitations of traditional tools have promoted the development of innovative methods for the rapid and cost-effective diagnosis of H. pylori infection. These novel biosensors, coupled with nanomaterials, may provide a hybrid device with unique physical and chemical properties, which make them an excellent label and sensing device for point of care (POC) diagnosing of H. pylori. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

In recent years, the development of nanotechnology allowed the nano-biosensor to be connected to wearable devices, meanwhile, the signal/information is transmitted wirelessly to a smartphone, leading to a smart healthcare monitoring system. The combination between using a smartphone as a reader and the nano-biosensors as a detection method has been already investigated for biomedical applications (detection of various pathogens, chemical substances, cells, etc.), the integration of smart instruments, and nanobiotechnology, leading to all-in-one sensing systems used as portable self-diagnosis devices. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text at https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics12020508

New therapeutic target in inflammation: Emerging role of dapagliflozin in overcoming lipopolysaccharide-mediated lung injury

By E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.

Effect of dapagliflozin (5 and 10 mg/kg) on the histological features of LPS-induced lung injury. Lung specimens of the Control or DPGZ animals exhibited no
histological alterations of normal bronchioles (B), normal alveoli (A), normal airspaces (AS), and normal alveolar wall thickening (arrowhead). However, LPSexposed
rats exhibited massive inflammatory-cell infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes (arrows), alveolar wall thickening (arrowheads),
fibrinous exudates (star) and the highest of both the inflammation score and the lung lesion distribution score. In contrast, DPGZ at both the lowest dose and
particularly the highest dose resulted in a marked improvement in lung histological features of lower degree of inflammatory-cell infiltration (arrows) and alveolar
wall thickening (arrowheads) and a significant decline in both the inflammation score and the lung lesion distribution score compared to LPS-exposed rats. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.
Effect of DPGZ (5 and 10 mg/kg) on the level of (A) SOD, (B) CAT, (C) GSH, (D) NOx, and (E) MDA in rats with LPS-induced ALI. SOD: superoxide dismutase, CAT: catalase, GSH: reduced glutathione, NOx: nitric oxide, MDA: malondialdehyde, DPGZ: dapagliflozin, LPS:
lipopolysaccharides. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.

Effect of dapagliflozin treatment on inflammatory markers: MPO activity as well as MCP-1, IL-1β, IL-18, and TNF-α levels. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.
Effect of DPGZ (5 and 10 mg/kg) on p-AMPK/t-AMPK ratio in rats with LPS-induced ALI.
p-AMPK: phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate phosphate kinase, t-AMPK: total adenosine monophosphate phosphate kinase, DPGZ: dapagliflozin, LPS: lipopolysaccharides. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.
Effect of dapagliflozin treatment on NLRP3 levels, NLRP3 gene expression, and caspase-1 activity. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.
Effect of dapagliflozin treatment on NF-kB P65 binding activity and NFĸB p65 (pSer536) levels in rats with LPS-induced ALI. NF-kB: nuclear factor kappa B, DPGZ: dapagliflozin, LPS: lipopolysaccharides. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.

Acute lung injury (ALI) is one the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. In this study, we examined for first time the role of dapagliflozin (DPGZ) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in rats and determined the underlying molecular mechanisms by evaluating the effects of DPGZ on adenosine monophosphate kinase (AMPK), nuclear transcription factor kappa B, nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 inflammasome activation. Copyright E. E. Abd El-Fattah, S. Saber, Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text available at : https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0753332222000166#fig0005

Phyto-Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Disorders

By T. Bhattacharya, G. A. Borges e Soares, H. Chopra, Md. M. Rahman, Z. Hasan, S. S. Swain and Simona Cavalu

Materials 15 00804 g001
Neurodegenerative diseases and the types of neurons affected. Copyright T. Bhattacharya, Simona Cavalu et al.

The strategies involved in the development of therapeutics for neurodegenerative disorders are very complex and challenging due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a closely spaced network of blood vessels and endothelial cells that functions to prevent the entry of unwanted substances in the brain. The emergence and advancement of nanotechnology shows favourable prospects to overcome this phenomenon. Engineered nanoparticles conjugated with drug moieties and imaging
agents that have dimensions between 1 and 100 nm could potentially be used to ensure enhanced efficacy, cellular uptake, specific transport, and delivery of specific molecules to the brain, owing to their modified physico-chemical features. The conjugates of nanoparticles and medicinal plants, or their components known as nano phytomedicine, have been gaining significance lately in the development of novel neuro-therapeutics owing to their natural abundance, promising targeted delivery to the brain, and lesser potential to show adverse effects. In the present review, the promising application, and recent trends of combined nanotechnology and phytomedicine for the treatment of neurological disorders (ND) as compared to conventional therapies, have been addressed. Nanotechnology-based efforts performed in bioinformatics for early diagnosis as well as futuristic precision medicine in ND have also been
discussed in the context of computational approach. schematic presentation of nano-informatic (nanotechnology and bioinformatics) in present dementia or neuro-disorder research.

Materials 15 00804 g002
Schematic presentation of nano-informatic (nanotechnology and bioinformatics) in present dementia or neuro-disorder research. Copyright T. Bhattacharya, Simona Cavalu et al.

Equal advancements in neurophysiology and neuropathology exploration would help in the advancement in nanotechnology, which can be used to provide CNS recovery and neuroprotection. Accordingly, for utilization of nanotechnology in neural system science and neurosurgery, key factors that require consideration include: (1) breakthrough discoveries and developments in drug science and material science, which can help in the manufacturing of the described methodologies; (2) development and advancement of sub-atomic science, sensory system-based neurophysiology, and neuropathology; and (3) planning and combination of explicit nano-empowered therapies to the CNS, which exploit the initial two factors. As a result, nanotechnology could provide the solution and can offer breakthrough therapies for the management and treatment of NDs and can also be used to bypass the current problem of available neurological therapies i.e., non-specific targeting and lower efficacy rates of drug therapies. Therefore, taken together, neurosurgeons, nervous system specialists, neuroscientists, and drug researchers and architects, should take part in utilizing the power of nanotechnology for drug delivery. Consistent with the profoundly interdisciplinary nature of this space of exploration, it is additionally significant to note that nano-informatics and nanotechnology can also provide innovative headways and progressions that are related to fundamental and clinical neuroscience. Copyright T. Bhattacharya, Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text at https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/15/3/804/htm

Novel Formulation Based on Chitosan-Arabic Gum Nanoparticles Entrapping Propolis Extract: Production, physico-chemical and structural characterization

By Simona Cavalu et al.

UV-Vis spectra of propolis extract and chitosan/Arabic gum
nanoparticles loaded with propolis. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
DLS analyses of colloidal chitosan/Arabic gum/propolis
mixture: a) Particle size distribution; b) Zeta potential. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
AFM images of chitosan/Arabic gum nanoparticles
entrapping propolis extract; a) 2D view; b) 3D topography; c)
Surface profile. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
AFM images of chitosan/Arabic gum nanoparticles
entrapping propolis extract; a) 2D view; b) 3D topography; c)
Surface profile. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
ATR FTIR spectra: a) raw propolis and powder chitosan/Arabic gum/propolis nanoparticles; b) powder chitosan and Arabic gum. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Due to the limitation of chitosan in drug delivery systems, because of its hydrophilicity and solubility, chemical modification was performed in our study by combining with a second natural polymer, Arabic gum, in order to
improve the stability of nanoparticles. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Morphological and structural characterization, using AFM, operating in tapping mode, along with the surface profile. Although the lateral dimensions are influenced by the shape of the probe, the height measurements can provide the height of nanoparticles with a high degree of accuracy and precision. However, larger particles are formed due to the aggregation during storage time. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Structural characterization of polymeric powder
nanoparticles entrapping propolis was performed by ATR
FTIR spectroscopy, and compared with recorded spectrum of raw propolis, chitosan powder and Arabic gum as reference. In the same time, the
marker bands of propolis are well preserved in the polymeric mixture, indicating that the bioactive compounds are stable upon the encapsulation procedure. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

In this study we succeeded to prepare and characterize natural polymeric nanoparticles based on chitosan/Arabic gum, entrapping propolis extract. The physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles were assessed by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, along with Dynamic Light Scattering, revealing that particle size obtained from highly dispersed mixture was in the range of 50-400 nm, with large Gaussian distribution, the maximum percentage of size distribution being at around 120 nm. In the same time,
an efficient encapsulation procedure was described using glutaraldehyde as cross-linking agent. The morpholological features of nanoparticles were emphasized by AFM microscopy, demonstrating a good correlation between
the results obtained by DLS technique. The FTIR analysis demonstrated that the marker bands of propolis are well preserved in the polymeric mixture, indicating that the bioactive compounds are stable upon the encapsulation
procedure. In our formulation, we consider that a balanced crosslinking toward electrostatic interaction was established. Propolis release from polymeric matrix was monitored in both simulated gastric acid and simulated intestinal fluids, concluding that our proposed formulation
is suitable for controlled release and pharmaceutical applications. Our results may provide a novel drug design, with improved bioavailability, stability and nutritional value of propolis bioactive compounds during processing and storage, with possible applications in food and nutraceutical industries. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text at https://revistadechimie.ro/Articles.asp?ID=6836

The Glass Ionomer Cement Reinforced with Silver– Premise in Choosing the Teeth Proposed for Orthodontic Purpose Extraction

By K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.

The glass ionomer cements present very good bio compatibility especially due to the presence of Fluor in their composition. The reactivity from the dental pulp to the ionomer cements is also favorable, even in the case of the profound cavities. The metallic ionomer cements are obturation materials that tend to replace the amalgams and were created by adding of metallic alloys to the glass powder for the purpose of improving the mechanic properties. The resistance to abrasion of the glass ionomer cements reinforced with Ag is increased compared to the ionomer cements, being close to that of the composite resins with micro filling, but inferior to the amalgams or composites for the posterior area. All these properties of the metallic glass ionomers recommend their utilization in accomplishing the definitive obturations of the permanent teeth from the lateral area, where the physiognomic aspect is not on the first place and where it is necessary a
material with fast grip. The physical-chemical qualities and the bio compatibility of the glass ionomers reinforced with particles of silver was our premise in their utilization for the obturation of the molars of six
years in children. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.

The initial aspect of the upper and inferior arch, with 1.6, 2.6,
3.6 and 4.6 with glass ionomers reinforced with silver particles. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.
The final aspect of the occlusion: front view and left-right
semi profile. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.
The aspect of the upper arch at the end of the orthodontic treatment, with molars of 6 years obturated with glass ionomer cement. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.
Orthopantomography of the case study. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.

The glass ionomer cements present a very good biocompatibility due, especially, to the presence of fluoride in their composition. This inhibits the microbial infiltration, protecting the adjacent dental structures against the decay injury. Glass ionomer is a real tank of fluoride on the entire period of life of the restoration. The reactivity from the dental pulp to the ionomer cements is favorable, even in the case of the profound cavities. The fluoride release of conventional glass ionomer cements is estimated higher compared with light-curing glass ionomer cements and compomers. Especially in young children the fluoride release may not only help to prevent secondary caries around the filling but may also reduce the risk of caries at the surface of the adjacent tooth. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.

The properties of the glass ionomers recommend them to be used in the performance of definitive obturations in the young permanent teeth from the lateral area, where the physiognomic aspect is not prioritary and where it is necessary a material with fast grip. Still is recommended to be used with care in the areas of maximum occlusal stress. The physical-chemical qualities, the absence of the secondary decays and the bio compatibility of the glass ionomers reinforced with particles of silver was our premise
in their utilization in the obturation of the molars of six years in children, as an alternative to the composite materials. Copyright K. Earar, A. Porumb, Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text at https://revistadechimie.ro/pdf/71%20EARAR%20K%201%2019.pdf

Two case reports of vertical and horizontal augmentation with autogenous bone blocks; seven years follow-up

By C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

The aim of this work was to highlight the advantages of autogenous bone grafting combined with plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) in order to improve healing and reduce dehiscence risks. Two clinical cases were presented, both with important (horizontal and vertical) bone loss: in the first case, bone augmentation was performed at the same time as tooth extraction with no surgery needed for reconstruction of dental papillae, keratinized and attached mucosa; in the second case, vertical augmentation was performed by placing the bone graft in contact with an uninfected tooth. In both cases, aesthetic outcomes were as desired at the completion of treatment and also satisfactory at seven years follow-up. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Crown-root fracture and bone harvesting from chin. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Wound closure and healing, 4 months after surgery. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu.
Implant placement, non-functional immediate restoration. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Healing after 12 weeks, aesthetic result with zirconia restoration. Copyright C. Ratiu,
Simona Cavalu et al.
CBCT after 7 years. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

The bone collected from the chin is predominantly cortical, with a reduced spongy component, which affects the re-vascularization efficiency. Even though the mandibular bone has an increased density, which makes it optimal for implants’ osseointegration, its regenerative potential is reduced [1, 2]. Moreover, the reconstruction of the horizontal defect is more predictable than of the vertical ones, as there are more bone walls. Consequently, the source for the capillaries that will invade the graft is
larger. A more modern and better approach uses longitudinal sectioning of the bone block, thinning of the bone with a bone scraper and filling the gap between the bone graft and the recipient site with small bone particles; the bone graft is acting as a bone barrier against soft tissue penetration into the graft. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

(a,b) Interdental septum, buccal and palatal plate missing; (c) Bone harvested from chin, soaking in plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
(a) Bone fixation on buccal plate, after graft splitting; (b) Bone fixation on palatal plate after graft splitting; (c) Gaps filled with cancellous bone. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
(a) Graft covered with fibrin membrane; (b) Wound closure after periosteum release; (c) Healing after six months. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
(a) Graft integration after six months; (b) Implant placement into the grafted bone; (c) Bone augmentation with bone obtained from the drill. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
(a) Graft covered with fibrin membrane; (b) Wound suture around the healing screw; c) Probing depth of about 2 mm. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
(a) Aesthetic result four months after the implant placement;
(b) Aesthetic result with lip retracted. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.
a) Aesthetic outcome after
seven years follow-up; (b) Cone-beam
computed tomography (CBCT) after
seven years follow-up. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

In the second case, however, the implant was placed six months after grafting and significant resorption was noticed. Even though the graft was integrated in the first case, the risk for dehiscence was very high; a deep
incision was made for flap release that interested even the muscles fibers. A safer approach might be performing the bone graft procedure four weeks’ after tooth extraction healing, done along with PRGF placement into the alveolar socket. Deep sectioning of the muscles fibers most likely leads to soft tissue healing without surgery needed for keratinized and attached mucosa. In the second case, a safer approach might be the extraction of tooth 1.1. and bone grafting in the position of both central incisors; placing the grafted bone in contact with the root of a tooth is risky due to the possible contamination, which can lead to graft infection and loss . Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Autogenous bone blocks are valid for both horizontal and vertical augmentation but thin bone barrier and bone particles are nowadays the best choice for autograft bone augmentation. The success of vertical autogenous bone grafts in contact with teeth is always endangered by the
possibility of graft contamination. PRGF is generally useful, but especially in vertical augmentation, considering the corresponding high risk of dehiscence. Tooth extraction with simultaneous bone grafting reduces treatment time but is complicated by high risk of dehiscence; thus, tooth
extraction with PRGF, bone and soft tissue healing for four weeks prior to grafting may be a safer approach. Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text at https://rjme.ro/RJME/resources/files/600119261266.pdf

Growth, Photosynthetic Pigments, Phenolic, Glucosinolates Content and Antioxidant Capacity of Broccoli Sprouts in Response to Nanoselenium Particles Supply

By S. I. Vicas, Simona Cavalu et al.

The aim of our study was the biofortification of broccoli sprouts with selenium nanoparticles (NSePs) and evaluation of growth parameters, assimilator pigments content, total phenols, glucosinolates content along with antioxidant capacity, in order to boost value added output, such as improved nutrition and food functionality. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

a) Size distribution of NSePs b) 3D micrograph of Selenium nano-spheres .
Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Effect of NSePs particles supply on: a) Total biomass; b) Root weight; c) Shoot weight. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Effect of NSePs treatment on green pigments content and total carotenoids.
Inset, chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b ratio. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Effect of NSePs treatments on: a) total phenols content; b) antioxidant capacity determined by DPPH assay; c) antioxidant capacity determined by FRAP assay. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
FTIR spectra of broccoli sprouts leaves upon NSePs treatment: a) 100 ppm; b) 50 ppm; c) 10 ppm; d) reference spectrum. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
HPLC profile of individual glucosinolates in broccoli sprouts (9 days old) grown under different concentrations of NSePs (10, 50 and 100 ppm). 1. PRO- Progoitrin, 2. GIB-Glucoiberin, 3. GRA- Glucoraphanin, 4. 4OHGBS- 4-hydroxyglucobrassicin, 5. GER- glucoerucin, 6. GBS-Glucobrassicin,7. MeGBS- methoxyglucobrassicin, 8. NGBS-Neoglucobrassicin. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Mapping nano-Se particles in situ. Enhanced Darkfield Hyperspectral images of Se uptaken: a) 60x image of Se in broccoli leaf; b) 60x image of the leaf with Se mapped and pseudo-colored in red; c) Spectral comparison of plant tissue and Se in broccoli leaf (green line-plant tissue; red line-selenium). Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Growth parameters, assimilator pigments content, total phenols content and antioxidant capacity of broccoli sprouts were evaluated. The growth of seedlings was depent on NSe concentration.The treatment with 10 and 50 ppm NSe caused a slight increase in total biomass, by contrast with 100 ppm treatment. A significantly increase in amount of chlorophyll a was recorded in the case of broccoli sprouts leaves treated with 100 ppm. The content in clorophyll band total carotene was not affected by the treatment with nanoSe particles. The concentration of 100 ppm NSe particles was reflected in the highest antioxidant capacity. Our results demonstrated that NSe particles in concentration of 10, 50 and 100 ppm didn’t induce any toxicity on broccoli sprouts. The effective uptake of NSe was further demonstrated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Enhanced Darkfield Hyperspectral Microscopy coupledwith CytoViva® unit. However, the complete understanding of NSe metabolism in vegetables sources requires more detailed biochemical studies and selenium uptake analysis to be conducted, especially from quantitative point of view. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text at https://www.notulaebotanicae.ro/index.php/nbha/article/view/11490/8807

PRGF-Modified Collagen Membranes for Guided Bone Regeneration: Spectroscopic, Microscopic and Nano-Mechanical Investigations

By C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

The aim of our study was to evaluate the properties of different commercially available resorbable collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration, upon addition of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF). The structural and morphological details, mechanical properties, and enzymatic degradation were investigated in a new approach, providing clinicians with new data in order to help them in a successful comparison and better selection of membranes with respect to their placement and working condition. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Whole blood separation upon centrifugation at 580 G for 8 minutes at room temperature (a) and subsequent platelets rich in growth factor (PRGF) separation by pipetting (b); membrane immersion in PRGF (c). Copyright C. Ratiu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Hematology parameters of whole blood and PRGF fraction:

ComponentWhole bloodPRGF
Leukocytes (x 103/μL)5.9 ± 1.20.3 ± 0.2
Erythrocytes (x 106/μL)4.5 ± 0.40.01 ± 0.0
Platelets (x 103/μL)210 ± 20655 ± 85
Hematology parameters of whole blood and PRGF fraction. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Growth factor contentValue
Transforming growth factor TGFβ1: enhances the proliferative activity of fibroblasts and stimulates the biosynthesis of collagen and fibronectin43 ng/mL
Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF: induces angiogenesis via migrating endothelial cells220 pg/mL
Insulin –like growth factor IGF-1:  is a primary mediator of the effects of growth hormone ; can also regulate cellular DNA synthesis105 ng/mL
Platelet-derived growth factor PDGR: enhances collagen synthesis and bone cells proliferation14 ng/mL
Quantitative assessment of the main growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines in PRGF fraction. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of different commercial collagen membranes before (a,d,g) and after (b,e,h) PRGF treatment; AFM 3D topography of the membrane surface after PRGF treatment (c,f,i) showing the details of collagen fibers. The images correspond to Biocollagen® (ac), CovaTM Max (df), and Jason® (gi). Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Nanoindentation measurements: load–displacement curves recorded for each membrane before (a,c,e) and after (b,d,f) PRGF treatment. The images correspond to Jason® (a,b), Biocollagen® (c,d), and CovaTM Max (e,f). Legend: MC1/MC2 = Jason® membrane before/after PRGF treatment; MCP1/MCP2 = Biocollagen® membrane before/after PRGF treatment; MPP1/MPP2 = CovaTM Max membrane before/after PRGF treatment. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Young modulus calculations with respect to the three collagen membranes before (a) and after PRGF treatment (b). Legend: MPP1/MPP2 = CovaTMMax membrane before/after PRGF treatment; MC1/MC2 = Jason® membrane before/after PRGF treatment; MCP1/MCP2 = Biocollagen® membrane before/after PRGF treatment. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Results of enzymatic degradation test of native (unmodified) and PRGF-modified collagen membranes. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

PRGF-modified collagen membranes investigated in our study present new evidence of several advantages, with respect to a rapid and predictable soft tissue healing. The structural and morphological features of three different commercial collagen membranes for GBG/GTR were investigated upon PRGF treatment, revealing that particular characteristics such as porosity, fiber density, and surface topography may influence the mechanical behavior and performance of the membranes. By FTIR spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that the collagen matrix may act as a natural reservoir for growth factor delivery. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that, upon PRGF treatment, the changes of Young modulus values are correlated with the ultrastructural properties of each membrane type, especially the porosity. The mechanical properties of the membranes were analyzed in a comparative manner, before and after PRGF modification. The enzymatic (trypsin) degradation test also emphasized a different behavior—PRGF-modified membranes exhibited a slower degradation compared with the native ones. Within the limitations of the present study, the results are important with respect to the regulation and kinetic release of multiple growth factors that can be adapted to specific therapeutic conditions. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

Perspectives on the Combined Effects of Ocimum basilicum and Trifolium pratense Extracts in Terms of Phytochemical Profile and Pharmacological Effects

By A. I. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al

Common and distinct therapeutic effects of Ocimum and Trifolium species.
Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Different species of Trifolium according to the amount of cyanogenic glycosides and isoflavones and identifying the species with rich chemical composition.
Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Pharmacological activities of extracts from Trifolium and Ocimum species after internal and external administration. Copyright I. A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Stages of the wound healing process (adapted from [121]).
Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.

The ability to promote wound healing by synergic effect of Trifolium Pratense and Ocimum basilicum mixt extract has not been studied yet, being the central point for future studies. So far, the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antifungal and anticancer properties have been demonstrated for each extract individually, obtaining promising results, and for these reasons, in the future, the mixture of both extracts are of great interest to be studied, expecting for a potential synergistic effect.

To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies in the literature dealing with any in vitro tests of the mixture Trifolium pretense and Ocimum basilicum extracts. Our research group performed a preliminary study using the “scratch test” assay on human fibroblasts, by applying the extract mixture in different concentrations on fibroblasts culture, in order to evaluate the optimum concentration to promote the stimulation and proliferation of the cells. Within this test, which is an in vitro model of wound healing, human fibroblasts were primarly grown to a confluent monolayer, and then was scraped in a straight line with a pipette tip, in order to simulate a wound. The fibroblasts migration into the wound area was monitored during 48 h incubation in the presence of different concentrations of mixed plant extracts along with the control (no treatment). Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.

The spontaneous migration of dermal fibroblasts is evidenced under light microscopy, along with the control samples, showing the progressive covering of the pseudo-wound monitored at different times intervals. Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Wound healing percent express as fibroblast migration to cover the scratched area. Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.

The antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum and Trifolium species are summarized in this review in order to explore the therapeutic potential of Ocimum basilicum and Trifolium pretense in relation with their phytochemical profile and to highlight the pharmacological activity of aqueous or ethanol extracts. Special attention was devoted to the dermal pathology and wound healing effects, in the context of multiple skin conditions such as acne, eczema boils, psoriasis and rashes. Both extracts (Trifolium sp. and Ocimum sp.) are characterized by high content of antioxidant compounds, which are also responsible for the radiance and resistance of the skin and the slowing down of the aging process by maintaining estrogen levels. Moreover, the potential combined effect of the mixed extract is pointed out in terms of future applications for wound healing, based on some preliminary results obtained from a “scratch tests” assay performed with respect to human dermal fibroblasts. Copyright I.A. Antonescu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text at https://www.mdpi.com/2223-7747/10/7/1390/htm