Precision Medicine and the future of Cardiovascular Diseases:A Clinically oriented Comprehensive Review

By Yashendra Sethi, Hitesh Chopra, Simona Cavalu et al.

Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

The prevalence of CVDs has nearly doubled, increasing from 271 million in 1990 to 523 million in 2019. Additionally, the global trend for the years lived with disability has doubled, increasing from 17.7 million to 34.4 million over the same period. The advent of precision medicine in cardiology has ignited new possibilities for individually personalized, integrative, and patient-centric approaches to disease prevention and treatment, incorporating the standard clinical data with advanced “omics”. These data help with the phenotypically adjudicated individualization of treatment. The major objective of this review was to compile the evolving clinically relevant tools of precision medicine that can help with the evidence-based precise individualized management of cardiac diseases with the highest DALY. The field of cardiology is evolving to provide targeted therapy, which is crafted as per the “omics”, involving genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, for deep phenotyping. Research for individualizing therapy in heart diseases with the highest DALY has helped identify novel genes, biomarkers, proteins, and technologies to aid early diagnosis and treatment. Precision medicine has helped in targeted management, allowing early diagnosis, timely precise intervention, and exposure to minimal side effects. Despite these great impacts, overcoming the barriers to implementing precision medicine requires addressing the economic, cultural, technical, and socio-political issues. Precision medicine is proposed to be the future of cardiovascular medicine and holds the potential for a more efficient and personalized approach to the management of cardiovascular diseases, contrary to the standardized blanket approach. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.

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The OMICS in precision medicine. Copyright Yashendra Sethi, Simona Cavalu et al.
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Timeline of the evolution of precision medicine in cardiology. Copyright Yashendra Sethi, Simona Cavalu et al.
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Domains of precision medicine in cardiology. Copyright Yashendra Sethi, Simona Cavalu et al.

Precision medicine is the future of medicine and holds promise for the more efficient management of cardiovascular diseases, owing to their gradual onset and heterogeneous, multimorbid, and chronic nature. The pathogenesis of these diseases may begin decades before any ultimate disease manifestation. Therefore, the use of precisely targeted tools for diagnosis and personalized treatment can revolutionize management by allowing the prevention, early diagnosis, and tailored treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Precision medicine is still an evolving field and many of the technologies needed for its implementation are in nascent stages. Moreover, the research and data on precision medicine are limited because of the ethical, social, legal, and economic issues, which may have produced an unavoidable bias in this review as well. This review explored the literature on precision medicine in cardiology and tried to outline and summarize the most clinically relevant sections of the evolving field. As we evolve in our capacity and infrastructure to employ tools exploring the genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of cardiovascular diseases, we stand to see a future where a more precise therapy tailored to the needs, demands and limitations of an individual patient would no longer be a dream but a responsibility. The future of cardiology is here; we need to assimilate, adapt and make it more accessible by educating the providers about the evolving field and making infrastructure more equitable to the public. Copyright Yashendra Sethi, Simona Cavalu et al.

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