Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Autoimmune Diseases: A Critical Review of the Association and the Application of Personalized Medicine

By Mihaela S. Popoviciu, Simona Cavalu et al.

T1DM is frequently associated with other autoimmune illnesses, the most common being autoimmune thyroid disorders affecting more than 90% of people with T1D and autoimmune disorders. Antithyroid antibodies are present in around 20% of children with T1D at the start of the illness and are more frequent in girls. Patients with T1DM often have various other co‐existing multi‐system autoimmune disorders including but not limited to thyroid diseases, parathyroid diseases, celiac disease, vitiligo, gastritis, skin diseases, and rheumatic diseases. Copyright M. S. Popoviciu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Personalized medicine has recently gained favor in the scientific, medical, and public domains, and is frequently heralded as the future paradigm of
healthcare delivery. With the evolution of the ‘omics’, the individualization of therapy is not only closer to reality but also the need of the hour. Copyright: M.S.Popoviciu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Personalized Medicine as an approach to T1DM and associated autoimmune diseases.
T1DM is associated with multiple other endocrine abnormalities—including thyroid, adrenal, gastrointestinal, rheumatological, and dermatological—that might be inapparent initially. Suggested approaches for managing these conditions are based on maintaining an electronic database with a recording of antibody screening and identifying biomarkers. Copyright: M.S. Popoviciu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Table 1. The autoimmune diseases and corresponding antibodies. Copyright: M.S. Popoviciu, Simona Cavalu et al.
Table 2. Personalized medicine and T1DM. Copyright: M.S. Popoviciu, Simona Cavalu et al.

The coexistence of T1DM and another autoimmune disease in the same patient has a major impact on the patient’s quality of life, affecting glucose metabolism, preventing effective insulin therapy, and influencing diabetes control. Hence, we recommend personalizing the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus in line with their comorbidities and the course of the disease. We also highlight the need for making antibody screening a regular part of disease protocol at least in regions where autoimmune diseases are prevalent, if not everywhere. The co‐existent autoimmune diseases thus treated in tandem can help better patient outcomes. Future studies are warranted to contribute region‐wise prevalence data of these associations as regional and ethnic variations have been largely seen; this data can thus help improve clinical decision making.

Copyright: M.S. Popoviciu, Simona Cavalu et al.

Full text available at: https://www.mdpi.com/2075-4426/13/3/422#B56-jpm-13-00422