Simultaneous radiotherapy and hyperthermia yield synergistic improvement of therapeutic efficacy in cancer therapy. The study is focussed on sol-gel derived particles of 60SiO2•20Al2O3•10Fe2O3•10Dy2O3 (mol%) system functionalized with type I collagen. The addition to aluminosilicate matrix of Fe2O3•was thought for hyperthermia and of Dy2O3 for internal radiation therapy after neutron activation of dysprosium to 165Dy radioisotope. The collagen functionalization of these particles aimed to make them well accepted in the body and to contribute to destruction of reactive oxygen species, what has to be taken into account when nanoparticles are used for cancer therapy.
The XRD, FTIR and XPS investigations were carried out on Fe-Dy-aluminosilicate particles of average size around tens of nanometers, before and after their incubation in collagen solution in order to prove the protein functionalization particles and to assess the changes in secondary structure of protein following this process. The results show the anchoring of the protein on particles surface in a few nanometers thin layer as well as some relative changes of protein secondary structure. After interface processes with particles surface, the secondary structure of amide I in collagen consists overwhelmingly of α-helices and only about 12 % of β-turns structure (S. Simon, Simona Cavalu, D. Eniu, V. Simon, JOMS 1236, 2021,130341).
By Inna V. Fadeeva, Margarita A. Goldberg, Ilya I. Preobrazhensky, Georgy V. Mamin, Galina A. Davidova, Nadezhda V. Agafonova, Marco Fosca, Fabrizio Russo, Sergey M. Barinov, Simona Cavalu & Julietta V. Rau
Zinc (Zn) is an important biological trace element that plays a role in the normal growth and development of the skeleton. Its content in human bones (0.0126–0.0217 wt%) is about 28% of the total amount of Zn in the body (0.0030 wt% of Zn in tissues) . The lack of Zn slows down the growth of the bone mass and has a negative influence on the bone metabolism . On the other hand, Zn deficiency is a factor of risk for bone osteoporosis .
In this work, the cement based on the Zn-substituted β-TCP powder with a simplified preparation recipe and improved characteristics was developed. The setting time of cements was 8 min (the ratio of cement powder: hardening liquid = 3:1), which is optimal for preparation and application of the developed cements for bone defects during surgery. The Zn2+ content was selected to be 1.40 wt%. The pH of the cements reached 6.5 within 60 min after setting. After soaking in physiological solution for 60 days, the morphology and composition of cements changed. The final phases were DCPD and HA.The EPR measurements showed the presence of the trapped hydrogen and confirmed that annealing at 900 °C led to the significant reduction of carbonate impurities embedded into the β-TCP structure.The NCTC L929 fibroblast cell viability on the developed Zn-β-TCP cement was 10% higher compared to cement without Zn and possess antibacterial properties against E. coli, E. faecium, and P. aeruginosa.This finding confirms that the novel material could be a valid strategy for a range of biomedical application in humans. Therefore, it could offer promising potential for bone replacement and repair in moderate and non-load-bearing defects that are prone to infection in orthopedic and trauma setting.
The main aim of our work was to highlight the in vitro healing potential of Stellaria media (L.) Vill. (SM) extract using the scratch assay on normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF). The ability to stimulate cell migration and proliferation under the influence of different concentrations of SM extract (range between 12.5 and 200 µg/mL) was determined compared to the control (untreated in vitro-simulated wound) and positive control (allantoin 50 µg/mL).Our findings demonstrate, for the first time in the literature, the wound-healing potential of SM extract on NHDF using the in vitro scratch method.
The Importance of Nano-Structured Surface on Titanium Implants. Titanium mesh or plates can be used in cranioplasty either alone or in conjunction with other synthetic materials, such as hydroxyapatite, calcium phosphate, and polyethylene.
This review emphasized the main reasons why titanium mesh is preferred for skull reconstructions along with the importance of developing innovative surface structures with a dual benefit in terms of improved osteointegration and enhanced antibacterial activity to reduce the risk of post-surgical infection, knowing that infections are the main complication in cranioplasty surgeries.
Since ancient times, essential oils (EOs) have been widely used and have been identified as therapeutic agents owing to their pharmacological and psychological properties. They were deemed to be physical, spiritual, and mental healing agents [1,2]. EOs are naturally occurring complex mixtures of volatile odor compounds synthesized as secondary metabolites by plants and are extracted through steam distillation, solvent extraction, maceration, cold press extraction, water distillation, and CO2 extraction. Novel methods that are more efficient and provide higher yields include supercritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and ultrasound . Studies conducted on animals and humans have shown that EOs can produce a variety of CNS targeted pharmacological effects such as anxiolytic effect, neuroprotection, antidepressant effect, anticonvulsant effect, analgesic, and sedative effect, to name a few. As a result, EOs can be used as an adjuvant therapy to prevent and relieve symptoms associated with CNS-based disorders such as insomnia, depression, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD), etc. As they are naturally occurring, they have the added benefit of being non-toxic and safe when utilized correctly at appropriate concentrations, which have been proven through research in the last ten years.
H. pylori is responsible for a chronic, transmissible, infectious disease and the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has complicated the therapy. All therapies should assume the possibility of antimicrobial drug resistance.
In the context of increasing rates of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, the risk factors and prevalence on global population, the aim of our work is to highlight the main drawbacks of currently used treatment regimens against H. pylori and at the same time, to emphasize the huge potential of natural alternatives, plants extracts and new formulation design and strategies to combat this pathogen. Special attention is also given to nanotechnological formulations, with huge potential for tissue microenvironment-responsive treatment. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Nanotechnology-Based Approach against H. pylori Infections
Metallic NPs such as silver, gold, zinc or iron have been previously reported to possess the ability of killing a wide range of bacteria including H. pylori [153,154] by well-known underlying mechanisms involving oxidative stress, metal ion release and nonoxidative stress. A very low NPs concentration is necessary for bactericidal effect, and hence, it is difficult for the bacteria to develop resistance. Among different metallic NPs, AgNPs are convenient, especially the biologically derived ones, as the preparation methods demonstrated a controlled particle size, shape, and mono-dispersity, while reducing time of preparation, in the context of environmentally friendly approaches. Copyright Simona Cavalu et al.
Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Improved Performances of Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors with Biomedical Applications
A “real-time” biosensor includes a biological recognition receptor (such as an antibody, enzyme, nucleic acid or whole cell) and a transducer to convert the biological binding event to a detectable signal, which is read out indicating both the presence and concentration of the analyte molecule.In nano(bio)sensors, nanoparticles (NPs) are incorporated into the (bio)sensor design by attachment to the suitably modified platforms. For this purpose, metal nanoparticles have many advantageous properties making them useful in the transducer component of the (bio)sensors. Gold, silver and platinum NPs have been the most popular ones, each form of these metallic NPs exhibiting special surface and interface features, which significantly improve the biocompatibility and transduction of the (bio)sensor compared to the same process in the absence of these NPs. The main types of NPs used for electrochemical (bio)sensors design, especially screen-printed electrodes, with their specific medical application due to their improved analytical performances and miniaturized form is presented.
This comprehensive review is focused on the main types of metal NPs and carbon-based nanomaterials used for electrochemical (bio)sensors design, especially screen-printed electrodes, with their specific biomedical applications, improved analytical performances and miniaturized form.Nanotechnological approaches will extend the limits of currently employed (bio)sensors and, moreover, they will open a new window toward personalized medicine, offering new solutions to the main challenges in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields. Future research should focus on some improvements concerning the nanomaterials characteristics and the sensor design in order to enhance their performances with multi-disciplinary efforts. The real sample analysis with more enhanced sensitivity and selectivity is still a challenge for researchers aiming the validation of the electrochemical nano(bio)sensors in comparison with the traditional analytical procedures. The reproducibility is another key aspect which needs to be solved for large-scale production of electrochemical sensors and their introduction on commercial market. The miniaturized, portable or wearable sensors which can perform on-site and real-time analysis will gain tremendous importance at the commercial level, with a huge impact on the health system.
By H.I. Kutbi, H.Z. Asfour, A. K. Kammoun, A. Sirwi, H. A. Gad and Simona Cavalu
Optimization of Hyaluronate-Based Liposomes to Augment the Oral Delivery and the Bioavailability of Berberine
To improve Brb permeability and bioavailability, this study presents a newly developed formulation, namely Brb hyaluronate-based liposomes, prepared by using film hydration method and characterized by dynamic light scattering measurements, entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), transmission electron microscope (TEM), in vitro drug release and physical stability. Results of pharmacokinetics studies indicated the potential of the liposomal formulation to increase the oral bioavailability of Brb and to accelerate its entry into the bloodstream. The obtained results are accredited to the lipophilic nature of the prepared system, resembling the structural features of bio-membrane, in addition to their small size that enhances intestinal penetration.
Different formulation variables (lipid, drug and hyaluronic acid amounts) have a significant effect on the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared system using film hydration method. The presence of hyaluronic acid as a main component in liposomes preparation was able to slow berberine diffusion from the vesicles.Oral administration of Brb hyaluronate-based liposomes to rats could improve lipophilicity and bioavailability of the investigated system compared to Brb solution and Brb liposomes prepared without hyaluronic acid. Copyright H.A. Gad and Simona Cavalu
In order to overcome the limitations of current endodontic sealers, especially against resistant bacteria, recent developments in the field of nanotechnology have proved the necessity to reconsider the composition and physico-chemical properties of classical sealers. Nanoparticles with their unique features in terms of small size and high specific surface area, are the best choice for incorporation of antiseptic agents and effective delivery. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating chlorhexidine (CHX) and colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared and incorporated into commercial sealer and investigated in terms of bonding performance to dentin and effectiveness against E. faecalis, S. aureus and Candida albicans, which are responsible for the majority of the failures in endodontic treatments. In this context, the challenges related to the long-term biological effects of CHX/AgNPs loaded MWCNTs are discussed.
Development of “smart” endodontic therapeutic agents
Our original approach, in the context of new generation sealers expecting to have a long-lasting antimicrobial effect, was to demonstrate that the antimicrobial effect of the mixture CNTs/AgNPs/CXH 2% incorporated in commercial sealer, was preserved long enough to efficiently inhibit Gram-positive germs, with excellent results towards E. faecalis in a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The antibacterial and antifungal assay clearly demonstrated a synergic effect of AgNPs, CHX 2% and CNTs with excellent results towards E. faecalis, which is responsible for the primary etiologic factors in pulp and periapical lesions.
Nano Selenium—Enriched Probiotics as Functional Food Products against Cadmium Liver Toxicity
The main goal of our work was to develop a functional food based on elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) obtained by green synthesis using Lactobacillus casei and to validate their ability to annihilate the hepatic toxic effects induced by cadmium.A functional food that includes both probiotic bacteria and elemental SeNPs could be successfully used to annihilate Cd-induced liver toxicity, and to improve both nutritional values and health benefits.
We proposed investigating for the first time the protective effect of SeNPs and lacto-SeNPs (LSeNPs) administered orally to mice for 30 days in different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg b.w.), against the toxic effects exerted by cadmium at the hepatic level. Blood biochemical parameters (transaminases, bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase), antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the antioxidant capacity of plasma along with the histology, immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial apoptosis markers (bcl-2, bax) and gene expression of hepatic inflammatory markers (NF-ĸB, TNFα, IL-6) were analyzed in terms of the comparative evaluation of the dose-dependent protective activity of SeNPs and LSeNPs against cadmium intoxication.
Co-administration of Cd with both forms of SeNPs significantly decreased the gene expression of liver inflammatory markers, with the best effects for LSeNPs. A functional food that includes both probiotic bacteria and elemental SeNPs could be successfully used to annihilate Cd-induced liver toxicity, and to improve both nutritional values and health benefits. In this way, a possible new technology is provided for the food industry, the production of yogurt enriched with selenium nanoparticles produced by lactic acid bacteria with protective effects against heavy metals.