H. pylori is responsible for a chronic, transmissible, infectious disease and the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance has complicated the therapy. All therapies should assume the possibility of antimicrobial drug resistance.
Metal Nanoparticles and Carbon-Based Nanomaterials for Improved Performances of Electrochemical (Bio)Sensors with Biomedical Applications
A “real-time” biosensor includes a biological recognition receptor (such as an antibody, enzyme, nucleic acid or whole cell) and a transducer to convert the biological binding event to a detectable signal, which is read out indicating both the presence and concentration of the analyte molecule.In nano(bio)sensors, nanoparticles (NPs) are incorporated into the (bio)sensor design by attachment to the suitably modified platforms. For this purpose, metal nanoparticles have many advantageous properties making them useful in the transducer component of the (bio)sensors. Gold, silver and platinum NPs have been the most popular ones, each form of these metallic NPs exhibiting special surface and interface features, which significantly improve the biocompatibility and transduction of the (bio)sensor compared to the same process in the absence of these NPs. The main types of NPs used for electrochemical (bio)sensors design, especially screen-printed electrodes, with their specific medical application due to their improved analytical performances and miniaturized form is presented.
This comprehensive review is focused on the main types of metal NPs and carbon-based nanomaterials used for electrochemical (bio)sensors design, especially screen-printed electrodes, with their specific biomedical applications, improved analytical performances and miniaturized form.Nanotechnological approaches will extend the limits of currently employed (bio)sensors and, moreover, they will open a new window toward personalized medicine, offering new solutions to the main challenges in the diagnostic and therapeutic fields. Future research should focus on some improvements concerning the nanomaterials characteristics and the sensor design in order to enhance their performances with multi-disciplinary efforts. The real sample analysis with more enhanced sensitivity and selectivity is still a challenge for researchers aiming the validation of the electrochemical nano(bio)sensors in comparison with the traditional analytical procedures. The reproducibility is another key aspect which needs to be solved for large-scale production of electrochemical sensors and their introduction on commercial market. The miniaturized, portable or wearable sensors which can perform on-site and real-time analysis will gain tremendous importance at the commercial level, with a huge impact on the health system.
Optimization of Hyaluronate-Based Liposomes to Augment the Oral Delivery and the Bioavailability of Berberine
To improve Brb permeability and bioavailability, this study presents a newly developed formulation, namely Brb hyaluronate-based liposomes, prepared by using film hydration method and characterized by dynamic light scattering measurements, entrapment efficiency percentage (EE%), transmission electron microscope (TEM), in vitro drug release and physical stability. Results of pharmacokinetics studies indicated the potential of the liposomal formulation to increase the oral bioavailability of Brb and to accelerate its entry into the bloodstream. The obtained results are accredited to the lipophilic nature of the prepared system, resembling the structural features of bio-membrane, in addition to their small size that enhances intestinal penetration.
Different formulation variables (lipid, drug and hyaluronic acid amounts) have a significant effect on the physicochemical characteristics of the prepared system using film hydration method. The presence of hyaluronic acid as a main component in liposomes preparation was able to slow berberine diffusion from the vesicles.Oral administration of Brb hyaluronate-based liposomes to rats could improve lipophilicity and bioavailability of the investigated system compared to Brb solution and Brb liposomes prepared without hyaluronic acid.
In order to overcome the limitations of current endodontic sealers, especially against resistant bacteria, recent developments in the field of nanotechnology have proved the necessity to reconsider the composition and physico-chemical properties of classical sealers. Nanoparticles with their unique features in terms of small size and high specific surface area, are the best choice for incorporation of antiseptic agents and effective delivery. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) encapsulating chlorhexidine (CHX) and colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared and incorporated into commercial sealer and investigated in terms of bonding performance to dentin and effectiveness against E. faecalis, S. aureus and Candida albicans, which are responsible for the majority of the failures in endodontic treatments. In this context, the challenges related to the long-term biological effects of CHX/AgNPs loaded MWCNTs are discussed.
Development of “smart” endodontic therapeutic agents
Our original approach, in the context of new generation sealers expecting to have a long-lasting antimicrobial effect, was to demonstrate that the antimicrobial effect of the mixture CNTs/AgNPs/CXH 2% incorporated in commercial sealer, was preserved long enough to efficiently inhibit Gram-positive germs, with excellent results towards E. faecalis in a concentration of 1 mg/mL. The antibacterial and antifungal assay clearly demonstrated a synergic effect of AgNPs, CHX 2% and CNTs with excellent results towards E. faecalis, which is responsible for the primary etiologic factors in pulp and periapical lesions.