Nano Selenium—Enriched Probiotics as Functional Food
Products against Cadmium Liver Toxicity
The main goal of our work was to develop a functional food based on elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) obtained by green synthesis using Lactobacillus casei and to validate their ability to annihilate the hepatic toxic effects induced by cadmium.A functional food that includes both probiotic bacteria and elemental SeNPs could be successfully used to annihilate Cd-induced liver toxicity, and to improve both nutritional values and health benefits.
We proposed investigating for the first time the protective effect of SeNPs and lacto-SeNPs (LSeNPs) administered orally to mice for 30 days in different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg b.w.), against the toxic effects exerted by cadmium at the hepatic level. Blood biochemical parameters (transaminases, bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase), antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the antioxidant capacity of plasma along with the histology, immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial apoptosis markers (bcl-2, bax) and gene expression of hepatic inflammatory markers (NF-ĸB, TNFα, IL-6) were analyzed in terms of the comparative evaluation of the dose-dependent protective activity of SeNPs and LSeNPs against cadmium intoxication.
Co-administration of Cd with both forms of SeNPs significantly decreased the gene expression of liver inflammatory markers, with the best effects for LSeNPs. A functional food that includes both probiotic bacteria and elemental SeNPs could be successfully used to annihilate Cd-induced liver toxicity, and to improve both nutritional values and health benefits. In this way, a possible new technology is provided for the food industry, the production of yogurt enriched with selenium nanoparticles produced by lactic acid bacteria with protective effects against heavy metals.
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