Functional food based on elemental selenium nanoparticles

Nano Selenium—Enriched Probiotics as Functional Food
Products against Cadmium Liver Toxicity

The main goal of our work was to develop a functional food based on elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) obtained by green synthesis using Lactobacillus casei and to validate their ability to annihilate the hepatic toxic effects induced by cadmium.A functional food that includes both probiotic bacteria and elemental SeNPs could be successfully used to annihilate Cd-induced liver toxicity, and to improve both nutritional values and health benefits.

TEM micrograph of SeNPs synthesized using L. casei and NaHSeO3 as a reducing agent; (b) energy dispersive X-ray analysis; and (c) particles size distribution confirmed by DLS.

We proposed investigating for the first time the protective effect of SeNPs and lacto-SeNPs (LSeNPs) administered orally to mice for 30 days in different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/kg b.w.), against the toxic effects exerted by cadmium at the hepatic level. Blood biochemical parameters (transaminases, bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase), antioxidant enzymes (catalase and glutathione peroxidase), the antioxidant capacity of plasma along with the histology, immunohistochemistry for mitochondrial apoptosis markers (bcl-2bax) and gene expression of hepatic inflammatory markers (NF-ĸB, TNFα, IL-6) were analyzed in terms of the comparative evaluation of the dose-dependent protective activity of SeNPs and LSeNPs against cadmium intoxication.

The histopathological sections of mice livers of the experimental groups,
Hepatic immunohistochemical expression of bcl-2 (A) and bax (B)

Co-administration of Cd with both forms of SeNPs significantly decreased the gene expression of liver inflammatory markers, with the best effects for LSeNPs. A functional food that includes both probiotic bacteria and elemental SeNPs could be successfully used to annihilate Cd-induced liver toxicity, and to improve both nutritional values and health benefits. In this way, a possible new technology is provided for the food industry, the production of yogurt enriched with selenium nanoparticles produced by lactic acid bacteria with protective effects against heavy metals.

The full text of the paper can be accessed at:

https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/14/9/2257/htm